10 thoughts on “Questions for Matt Garley

  1. Cecelia Anne Cutler Post author

    Norma Mendoza-Denton’s work on norteñas and sureñas in California makes links between symbolic practices like color choices in make-up and sartorial display. Chingo Bling’s hybrid style seems to work in a similar way in the “CERVEZA” video, but rather than indexing membership in a single group, it positions him as bridging two communities (Mexican vaquero roots and hip hop), something that is reflected in his multilingual rapping style. Do clothing and other forms of adornment mirror language practices for any of the artists you’ve studied on YouTube? Examples 9a and 9b reveal attitudes towards Spanish speakers as scary, incomprehensible and dangerous. There is some framing of the “güeros” too; what discourses might this lyric reveal about how “güeros” are perceived by Spanish speakers?

  2. Angie Waller

    While the paper mentions too little is known about the commenters to call them a community – did you explore these commenters activity on Youtube to see if their interactions with other videos were similar? Did you factor in how many times the video was viewed, would it make a difference if a video had 10k views versus 500?

    Do you think the heightened uncertainty of online privacy and immigrant rights will impact social media research on ethnic minorities in the U.S.? Have you noticed any reactions to the current political climate in your research?

  3. Anthony J. Harb

    I’m interested in the methodology of this research. This is the first project I’m exposed to in which YouTube videos and, perhaps more interesting, YouTube comments are involved. It seems fair to say that many individuals take on a varied persona when engaging with an online platform. How can researchers studying such platforms like YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, etc., which can tell us many things about identity formation, take into account the potential discrepancies in online identity vs. in-person? Is this differentiation even an important one for this research? What could these questions add or take away from the research?

    I would also be interested in elaborating on the reflection about using Spanish to create camaraderie between ethnically minoritized groups (like Latinxs and African Americans) versus the complexity behind a White rap group using Spanish to contribute to the iconization of its speakers as “scary…dangerous” (17), as Garley states while at the same time creating some sort of connection or bond between the individuals through a fruitful musical collaboration. The power dynamics in the latter seem to be telling of more widely applicable relationships between White people and Latinx in the music community.

  4. Kelsey Swift

    I’m particularly interested in the codeswitching/language-mixing/translanguaging aspects of these comments…

    A general question about CMC – according to previous research, do an individual’s CMC and spoken language tend to be the same, particularly in terms of language mixing? Is CMC more open to language mixing?

    Do the commenters on the Chingo Bling video use more codeswitching/translanguaging to mirror the artist’s language use/hybridity, or does something about the song and its language use/message encourage more linguistic flexibility/innovation in general?

  5. Carmin Quijano-Seda

    I am interested in the qualitative and quantitative methodologies used to analyze the fans´comments. The author does a good job describing these comments in terms of the language(s) used and their relation to the proclaimed identity of the commenters. After completing his analysis, he noticed that the comments of three (out of four) videos were diverse or heteregoneous, and he claims that this could be related to language ideologies and attitudes. Therefore, it would be appropiate to include an ideological analysis of these comments. In this case, the heteroglossia concept would be useful, because it “entails the coexistence of and often tension between different types of speech within an utterance” (Cutler, 2017, p. 7). I believe these concept could be applied to the ideological tensions present in some of these comments. This ideological analysis could help this study to give a more comprehensive answer to questions 1 and 3, as stated in page 6.

  6. Andrés Carvajal

    In the methods section: The author states: “The videos chosen are not a random sample, but have instead been chosen to represent the diversity of linguistic situations in Latin hip hop, especially when artists of multiple ethnicities are involved.”

    1-) What was the rationale to exclude other videos that could potentially meet the same criteria?
    2-) What was the rationale to limit the analysis to just those video clips?

  7. Marcos Ynoa

    My question centers around the comments posted in both Chingo Bling’s and The Beatnuts’ work:

    Code-switching (or Translanguage) in general has had an array of supporters as much as it has had opposition. Focusing on the youth culture in present and linking it to discourses on a broader level (e.g: the political realm) do you think that the data you’ve been able to collect from those that have used code-switching could possibly be indicative of greater instances of this participation in order to reinforce one’s racial identity as a form of pride, resistance, and overall a broader acceptance? Although I’m positive more data would need to be collected in order to accurately justify that claim, I witnessed a similar trend with my own students when I was teaching for the last two years.

  8. Ekaterina Levitskaya

    From the standpoint of finding out about opinions through data mining – in which way opinions expressed in a computer-mediated discourse may be different from those expressed offline or in face-to-face communication? Thank you very much.

    1. Ekaterina Levitskaya

      Or to put it into a literature context, is it a fact now that “The very distinction between offline and online communication is now increasingly fuzzy, as people are “always on” (Baron 2008) and there is little difference in the way people express opinions both online and offline? Thank you very much.

  9. Sara Vogel

    Matt provides a strong rationale for using code-switching in some moments of his analysis and translanguaging in others (he is focusing on how people make sense of linguistic categories and ideologies about standards, and code switching keeps those language categories in-tact). He does leave open the question of whether and how translanguaging might be an effective theoretical frame too, and would love his comments on that front.

    There’s a tension I notice in the writing. Even as Matt describe his codes for the comments (monolingual English, monolingual Spanish, code-switching, other) — there’s a recognition of the complexities within these categories (varieties of youth English, African American English, Hip Hop Nation Language, and English CMC forms, multiple Spanish varieties and CMC forms). I understand the main point of this study is to figure out orientations towards the linguistic categories of “Spanish” and “English” in Latin@ hip hop, and that’s why the decision is made to code for “code-switching.” At the same time, it seems like code-switching is a limiting theory given the sheer dynamism of the language use in these comments and videos. As Matt writes, words like piñata, fajita, cumbia, tequila are arguably English at this point, people are using emojis, words from particular pop cultural references etc etc! What I see Matt wanting to do in this article is to trace the origins, associations, ideologies of features of language used in Latin@ hip hop (in which case, belonging to a particular named language category like English or Spanish may or may not be salient). To me, if the decision is made to take the study in that direction, it might benefit from a translanguaging lens, because it’s about looking at features that go beyond linguistic categories, not “languages” per se. Matt’s analysis also points out a host of other multimodal features that are helping convey meaning and belonging (the nike swoosh on the boots, the beats, the jewelry for instance) — which suggest to me that a theory like communicative repertoire might also help frame future work in this space.

    This next question engages with the idea of youtube comments as a medium. How would the data look different if Matt was looking at comments on vimeo, rap genius, twitter, reddit, soundcloud, spotify etc? Why was the decision made to focus on YouTube only?

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